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  • 1  Kosthold / Kosttilskudd / SV: ZMA, tidenes sjukeste tilskudd..? 15. august 2005, 18:18
    At produsentene og butikkene sier at det virker, er ikke det samme som at det faktisk gjør det.

    Nei, derfor skal vi heller ikke legge for mye vekt på annonser når vi dømmer et produkt.
    Som en start kan du kikke på følgende-selv om jeg tviler på at det vil rokke ved noen av dine oppfatninger
     
    Spesielt om Zink og magnesium-
    Brilla, L.R. and Gunter, K.B. (1995). Effect of magnesium supplementation on exercise time to exhaustion. Medicine, Exercise, Nutrition and Health, 4:230-233.
    Brilla, L.R. and Lombardi, V.P. (1995). Magnesium in Sports Physiology and Performance, in Kies, C.V. and Driskell, J.A. (Eds.), Sports Nutrition: Minerals and Electrolytes, an American Chemical Society monograph, Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, pgs. 139-177.
    Brilla, L.R. and Lombardi, V.P. (1999). Magnesium In Exercise and Sport, in Wolinsky, I. and Driskell, J.A. (Eds.),: Macromolecules, Electrolytes and Macroelements in Sports Nutrition, Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Ch. 4, pgs. 47-90.
    Brilla, L.R. and Conte, V. (2000). Effects of a novel zinc-magnesium formulation on hormones and strength. Journal of Exercise Physiology. 3(4):26-36.
    Avaken, E.V., Brilla, L.R., Colburn, R.W., Horvath, S.M., and Evonuk, E. (1984). Effects of dietary magnesium deficiency and chronic exercise training on adrenal catecholamines. Federation Proceedings, 43, 801.
    Brilla, L.R., Fredrickson, J.H., and Lombardi, V.P. (1987). Dietary-induced magnesium deficiency and exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 19(2)suppl, S21.
    Brilla, L.R. and Lombardi, V.P. (1989). Body weight response to magnesium deficiency and exercise. Magnesium: Clinical and Experimental Research, 8(5), 461.
    Brilla, L.R. (1992). Economy during endurance exercise following magnesium supplementation. The Physiologist, 35(4), 234.
    Burkett, R. and Brilla, L.R. (1996). The effects of magnesium supplementation on strength-trained individuals. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 15(5):541.
    Brilla, L.R. and Burkett, R. (1997). Effect of magnesium-fortified sports drink on strength in collegiate football players. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29 :S250.
    Nutrition. 1996 May;12(5):344-8. Zinc status and serum testosterone levels of healthy adults.
    Prasad AS, Mantzoros CS, Beck FW, Hess JW, Brewer GJ.

    Når det gjelder B6 er det ikke noe som tyder på at det er skadelig for søvn eller mental helse, snarere tvert imot.




    Honnr gitt av : Sigg1, 23. juni 2011, 19:21
    2  Arkiv / The Best Of Treningsforum / Muskelvekst og hormoner 13. mai 2004, 11:43
    Hvordan skal jeg trene for å oppnå muskelvekst?

    Dette klassiske spørsmålet besvares ulikt av de forskjellige menighetene innen kroppsbygging (HST, HIT, Volum osv), selv om grunnprinsippene i mange typer program har fellestrekk. Svaret er selvsagt at man kan vokse med ulike treningsopplegg, og at variasjon i volum, intensitet, antall reps, treningsfrekvens osv. fra tid til annen kan være gunstig for å få kroppen til å tilpasse seg nye belastninger.
    Men er det mulig å si noe om parametre for optimal vekst? Hormonrespons på trening er et forskningsfelt som i hvertfall får en del oppmerksomhet for dagen, og jeg har derfor sakset fra en artikkel på bodybuilding.com. For referanser, se nederst i artikkelen.
    By: Coach Hale

    Virtually everything you do in life triggers a hormonal response in the body. Hormonal levels control our body's actions. It is very important to understand the key role hormones play in inducing muscular growth as well as muscular breakdown.

     Hormones are chemical messengers that are secreted by the endocrine system. Once they are in the blood they travel to specific receptor sites on cells. Tissue adaptions are partly dependent on hormonal levels. It is important that the athlete has a basic understanding of these powerful messengers. Manipulating these hormones to your advantage ensures successful adaption, training, health and performance.

    Muscle Fiber Changes

    The most important adaption that takes place in muscle tissue is the increase in contractile proteins, actin and myosin. Other changes occur such as the synthesis of non-contractile proteins (satellite cells), which can become part of the contractile element of muscle tissue. Stimulation of these mechanisms occurs with resistance training. Decreasing protein breakdown and increasing protein synthesis are the first steps in hypertrophy.

    The anabolic hormones insulin, insulin like growth factor, testosterone and growth hormone are all contributing factors to this process. Decreasing the catabolic hormones such as cortisol is also important in this process. The more muscle fibers stimulated with a particular exercise, the greater the adaptive response. Hormones have a great effect on the capabilities and structure of muscle fibers.

    Receptors

    The lock-and-key theory states that a specific hormone interacts with a specific receptor site. The hormone acts like a key while the receptor site is like a lock. Once the key opens the lock, a message is sent to the cell to perform a specific action. The genetic material in the nucleus of the cell either translates the message to mean protein synthesis or protein breakdown. Once an adaption ceiling is reached, the cell becomes down regulated (non-responsive) to the hormone. Down regulation of the receptor inhibits alteration in cell metabolism.

    Two Main Hormones

    There are two main categories of hormones: steroid and polypeptide hormones. These hormones affect muscle cells in different ways.

    The gonads and the adrenal cortex secrete steroid hormones. The hormone diffuses across the sarcolemma and binds with its receptor, thus activating it. When the hormone reaches the cell nucleus it opens up units that are coded for protein synthesis. The hormone receptor-complex recognizes certain regulatory mechanisms of genes. The end result is that messenger RNA is processed and shuttled to the sarcoplasm where it becomes protein.

    Polypeptide hormones are made of amino acids. Growth hormone and insulin are example of this classification. These hormones are not fat-soluble therefore they cannot penetrate the sarcolemma. They rely on secondary messengers to get their message to the cell nucleus. The change in the receptor as a result of the interaction with the hormone triggers the secondary messenger. A chain of intracellular events lead to the physiological response contributed to the hormone.

    Heavy Resistance Exercise

    Heavy resistance exercise stimulates significant adaptions in trained muscles such as increased strength, size and power. Resistance training causes endocrine glands to secrete hormones. These hormones provide an excess of information to the body. These hormones elicit different responses. The pattern and duration of exercise greatly influence the type of hormone secreted.



    This in return greatly effects the tissue adaptions that occur. Hormonal increases that take place due to resistance training are different than responses activated by endurance exercise. Motor units are utilized with resistance training that are not with other types of exercise. These high threshold motor units are only activated when great amounts of force are needed, such as with heavy resistance training. The muscle fibers within these motor units are activated and a great amount of stress is placed upon the sarcolemmas of the muscle fibers. The stress elicits changes in sarcolemma permeability to nutrients and synthesis and sensitivity of receptors are affected. Finally, it is the force produced in the activated fibers that lead to the anabolic response in the muscle cells.

    During and following exercise, numerous hormonal secretions take place. The desired outcome is synthesis of actin and myosin and inhibition of protein breakdown. If the stress is to great or long in duration, catabolic forces such as cortisol take over the muscle. The hormonal responses depend on tissues stimulated, duration of exercise and needed amount of repair.

    Once a muscle has reached a high level of development, protein synthesis is no longer the key mechanism for growth. Thus decreasing protein breakdown is the number one contributor to muscular growth. Keep in mind that only the muscle fibers stimulated are subject to affect. This is why it is important to vary exercises. Only the fibers stimulated receive hormonal benefits. If you use the same exercise for biceps every time you train, you will not maximize growth because the same fibers are stimulated continuously. Angles and loading parameters control the extent of hormonal interaction within muscles.

    The response of muscles to hormones is dependent on a few factors. If there are great amounts of the hormone in the blood, the chances of affecting the receptors are greater. If the cell is close to its genetic ceiling, the receptor becomes less responsive to the hormone. With heavy resistance training the recovery ability correlates with muscle fiber size. Incorrect training protocols can result in the downside of hormones, catabolism. Interactions between hormones and muscles can negatively influence cellular structure or have a positive effect on growth.

    There is an array of factors that contribute to hypertrophy. However, increased force production cannot be contributed to hypertrophy alone. Neural factors play a great role in maximum force production. Each individual varies in forms of neurological efficiency just as they do with hormonal levels.

    Hormones In Blood

    Blood levels are sometimes used to test for the secretion of hormones. This can be a complex task because the hormonal levels are ever changing in the bloodstream. It should be noted that just because a hormone is present in the bloodstream does not mean that it will successfully reach the receptor site. Although, the higher concentrations of the hormones in the blood the greater possibility for the hormone to bind to the receptor.

    The ideal situation for anabolism is to have a higher number of anabolic hormones in the blood than catabolic hormones. This usually leads to positive cellular adaptions.

    The anabolic hormones we will be discussing are testosterone, growth hormone, insulin and insulin like growth factors. These are the primary hormones involved with muscular growth.

    Testosterone

    Everyone involved with the exercise industry has some conception of testosterone. To most it is an evil word, "TESTOSTERONE." This stuff makes people commit violent crimes, die of heart attacks and suffer from strokes. It also allows anyone to put on extraordinary amounts of muscle. Where do these ideas come from? They come from ignorant people who know zero about this hormone.

    Testosterone indirectly effects protein synthesis by releasing growth hormone, which increases the release of Insulin Growth Factor (IGF) from the liver. Testosterone has effects on the nervous system, which lead to increasing neurotransmitters and increasing neuromuscular junctions, which enhance muscle size. As neurological efficiency increases, force production also increases.

    The mechanism in which testosterone interacts with the cell nucleus is inexact. Once testosterone is secreted, a transport protein called globulin to a receptor site carries it. From here, a message is activated and sent to the cell nucleus. Protein synthesis is the result of this series of events. Concentrations of testosterone are often used as an anabolic marker. There are certain exercise variables that can have a positive effect on blood testosterone levels.

    They Are As Follows:


    Workouts lasting under sixty minutes.
    Multiple sets
    Compound exercises
    Short rest intervals (one minute)
    Heavy resistance, 80% - 90% of 1RM.
    Have you ever heard the saying, "Squat and deadlift and your whole body will grow." Elevating testosterone levels as well as stimulating large amounts of muscle mass are the reason this occurs. If you rely solely on the use of machines, try introducing compound exercises and expect your gains to accelerate.

     The majority of research done on hormonal responses in relation to exercise has been tested on male subjects. Testosterone responses have been credited as the major determinant in the difference between male and female muscularity and force production. On average, males produce about ten times the testosterone of females. Thus far, studies do not show any significant changes in women's testosterone levels due to exercise.

    Growth Hormone

    Growth hormone has been cited as a growth mechanism in skeletal muscle tissue and other tissues in the body. Growth hormone is important in the normal growth of a child as well as the role it plays in adapting to exercise.

    Some Of The Roles Of Growth Hormone Include:


    Increased protein synthesis
    Utilization of fatty acids
    Increasing amino acid transportation
    Increasing cartilage growth
    Promotes lipolysis
    Reduces carbohydrate utilization for energy
    Most studies say growth hormone is released due to neurological signals from the nervous system stimulated by exercise stress and anxiety. Signals to the hypothalamus cause a hormonal release that stimulates the secretion of growth hormone. Growth hormone also stimulates the release of IGFs from the liver. IGFs are potent anabolic agents, which enhance protein synthesis.

    Blood levels of growth hormone vary throughout the day. The highest levels of secretion occur during sleep. This is one of the reasons adequate sleep assists the body in recovering and growing properly. Exercise has been shown to increase growth hormone secretion at any time during the day.

    The pharmacological use of growth hormone is a highly debated subject. Some experts say growth hormone treatment is the main reason bodybuilders are much more muscular and ripped than they were in the past. Others report growth hormone is only beneficial to bodybuilders that simultaneously use anabolic steroids. Debating this topic is another article in itself. In this article the main concern is increasing endogenous mechanisms that result in growth hormone secretion. Further research is needed to tell us just how exogenous growth hormone compares to natural growth hormone production.

    Increased hydrogen ions appear to stimulate the release of growth hormone. This means higher blood lactate concentrations (closely associated with hydrogen ions) mean higher blood levels of growth hormone.

    Light resistance exercise has been shown to be non-effective in raising growth hormone levels. Kraemer found when using moderate resistance (10RM) with multiple sets and short rest periods (1 minute), serum growth hormone levels increased. By carefully designing your resistance-training program it is possible to reap the rewards of elevated growth hormone.

    When going through the menstrual cycle, women have higher blood levels of growth hormone than men. Research on females has shown when using heavy resistance (5RM) and resting for three minutes between sets, no significant rise in growth hormone occurs. However, when using moderate resistance (10RM) with short rest periods (1 minute) rises occur. Varying routines is important for altering levels of growth hormone.

    Insulin

    Insulin is a peptide hormone that is secreted from the beta cells of the pancreas. Insulin can have positive effects on skeletal muscle, but it can also enhance bodyfat levels.

    Insulin Functions Are As Follows:


    Lowers blood glucose.
    Promotes cellular uptake of carbohydrates, amino acids and fatty acids.
    Excessive insulin results in fat storage.
    Training has been shown to increase the sensitivity of insulin. The insulin drop during exercise is reduced by the training effect. Further research needs to be conducted to determine insulin's response in regards to training.


    "Injectable insulin is very dangerous and can result in fatality within a matter of minutes."
    Insulin acts as a powerful anabolic agent by shuttling amino acids into the muscle cell. Many experts view this hormone as the most powerful anabolic agent in existence. This is why the use of injectable insulin has become commonplace among bodybuilders. Injectable insulin is very dangerous and can result in fatality within a matter of minutes. If you use injectable insulin be sure it is under the supervision of a doctor.

     Manipulating insulin levels is important for physique purposes. The right amounts at the right time result in muscular gains while chronically high levels result in fat storage. Excessive levels of insulin reduce testosterone and growth hormone levels. High levels of insulin can also stop the production of eicosanoids. Jay Robb has stated that production of eicosanoids is synthesized within the body from essential fatty acids especially from linolenic acid. Levels of insulin can be manipulated by carbohydrate intake. Too much of a good thing can result in a bad thing.

    IGF

    Insulin like growth factors (IGFs) are secreted by the liver after growth hormone signals liver DNA to synthesize them. IGFs are classified as IGF-I, a 70 amino-acid polypeptide, or IGF-II, a 67 amino-acid polypeptide. IGFs travel in the blood while being attached to binding proteins where they attach to receptor sites.

    The disruption of various cells including fat and muscle cells stimulates the release of IGF. Fat cells store high levels of IGF, while skeletal muscle contains small amounts. It is likely that non-liver cells release IGF without the assistance of growth hormone. It is also possible that specific cells produce IGF, but do not release it into the bloodstream.

    Binding proteins play an important part in the function of IGF. IGF has been shown to stimulate the release of binding protein within the muscle itself, therefore changing the cells responsiveness to IGF. Nutritional profile has also shown to be an important factor in IGF responsiveness. Sudden changes in nitrogen balance and protein intake seem to effect IGF levels. Binding proteins act as a reservoir for IGF. These proteins release IGF once a receptor site is open. Thus the amount of IGF degradation is reduced.

    At this time, it is unclear how heavy resistance training effects IGF levels. One study showed that a variety of different exercise patterns elicited an IGF rise about two hours after training. Further research needs to be conducted to learn more about exercise effects on IGF levels.

    Controlling anabolic hormones is one of the most important aspects of controlling your physique. These powerful hormones previously discussed can help you to reach your fullest potential.

    Main Catabolic Hormone

    The most powerful catabolic hormone is cortisol. Minimizing cortisol levels can assist greatly in maximizing your growth potential.

    Cortisol is a hormone that is produced by the adrenal cortex. This hormone is released to help the body deal with stress and provide energy to the body. The problem with this hormone is the catabolic effects it has on the body.

    These Effects Are As Follows:

    Increases proteolytic enzymes (enzymes that degrade protein)
    Turns amino acids to carbohydrates
    Inhibits protein synthesis
    Breakdown of collagen and ligament tissue
    Cortisol has greater catabolic effects in fast twitch fibers in comparison to slow twitch fibers
    In cases of injury, cortisol elevation results in nitrogen degradation and causes a loss of contractile protein. This loss results in muscle atrophy. Inside the muscle, anabolic hormones such as insulin and testosterone counter the actions of cortisol. If the anabolic hormones occupy a greater number of receptors, protein is maintained or enhanced. When cortisol is bound to a greater number of receptors, protein breakdown is enhanced. Ensuring that anabolic hormones are higher than catabolic hormones is important for muscle maintenance and growth.

    Resistance training that utilizes high volume; large muscle groups and shorter rest periods are responsible for the highest levels of cortisol. This is interesting because the stimulus that causes the greatest catabolic effect also causes the greatest growth hormone response. While cortisol levels promote breakdown, short time increases could also help with muscular growth. Muscles must be broken down in order to repair themselves and grow. Short-term cortisol elevation would help this process. Athletes often use testosterone-cortisol ratio blood levels to determine if their bodies are in a growth state. This sounds logical, but this ratio has proven unsuccessful as being a marker for mass and strength gains. The multiple roles of cortisol make the test inadequate in being a true marker of anabolism or catabolism.

    In conclusion, it is evident that hormones are responsive to muscle tissue.
    References

    1. Baechle, T.R. (1994) Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning. Human Kinetics.
    2. Dipasquale, M. (1995) The Anabolic Diet. Optimum Training Systems.
    3. Hale, J. (2000) Optimum Physique. Jamie Hale.
    4. Hatfield, F.C. (1993) Fitness The Complete Guide. The International Sports Sciences Publishing.
    5. Robb, J. (1994) The Fat Burning Diet. Loving Health Publications.


    Honnr gitt av : kakemann, 13. juli 2009, 18:05
    3  Arkiv / The Best Of Treningsforum / Muskelvekst og hormoner 13. mai 2004, 11:43
    Hvordan skal jeg trene for å oppnå muskelvekst?

    Dette klassiske spørsmålet besvares ulikt av de forskjellige menighetene innen kroppsbygging (HST, HIT, Volum osv), selv om grunnprinsippene i mange typer program har fellestrekk. Svaret er selvsagt at man kan vokse med ulike treningsopplegg, og at variasjon i volum, intensitet, antall reps, treningsfrekvens osv. fra tid til annen kan være gunstig for å få kroppen til å tilpasse seg nye belastninger.
    Men er det mulig å si noe om parametre for optimal vekst? Hormonrespons på trening er et forskningsfelt som i hvertfall får en del oppmerksomhet for dagen, og jeg har derfor sakset fra en artikkel på bodybuilding.com. For referanser, se nederst i artikkelen.
    By: Coach Hale

    Virtually everything you do in life triggers a hormonal response in the body. Hormonal levels control our body's actions. It is very important to understand the key role hormones play in inducing muscular growth as well as muscular breakdown.

     Hormones are chemical messengers that are secreted by the endocrine system. Once they are in the blood they travel to specific receptor sites on cells. Tissue adaptions are partly dependent on hormonal levels. It is important that the athlete has a basic understanding of these powerful messengers. Manipulating these hormones to your advantage ensures successful adaption, training, health and performance.

    Muscle Fiber Changes

    The most important adaption that takes place in muscle tissue is the increase in contractile proteins, actin and myosin. Other changes occur such as the synthesis of non-contractile proteins (satellite cells), which can become part of the contractile element of muscle tissue. Stimulation of these mechanisms occurs with resistance training. Decreasing protein breakdown and increasing protein synthesis are the first steps in hypertrophy.

    The anabolic hormones insulin, insulin like growth factor, testosterone and growth hormone are all contributing factors to this process. Decreasing the catabolic hormones such as cortisol is also important in this process. The more muscle fibers stimulated with a particular exercise, the greater the adaptive response. Hormones have a great effect on the capabilities and structure of muscle fibers.

    Receptors

    The lock-and-key theory states that a specific hormone interacts with a specific receptor site. The hormone acts like a key while the receptor site is like a lock. Once the key opens the lock, a message is sent to the cell to perform a specific action. The genetic material in the nucleus of the cell either translates the message to mean protein synthesis or protein breakdown. Once an adaption ceiling is reached, the cell becomes down regulated (non-responsive) to the hormone. Down regulation of the receptor inhibits alteration in cell metabolism.

    Two Main Hormones

    There are two main categories of hormones: steroid and polypeptide hormones. These hormones affect muscle cells in different ways.

    The gonads and the adrenal cortex secrete steroid hormones. The hormone diffuses across the sarcolemma and binds with its receptor, thus activating it. When the hormone reaches the cell nucleus it opens up units that are coded for protein synthesis. The hormone receptor-complex recognizes certain regulatory mechanisms of genes. The end result is that messenger RNA is processed and shuttled to the sarcoplasm where it becomes protein.

    Polypeptide hormones are made of amino acids. Growth hormone and insulin are example of this classification. These hormones are not fat-soluble therefore they cannot penetrate the sarcolemma. They rely on secondary messengers to get their message to the cell nucleus. The change in the receptor as a result of the interaction with the hormone triggers the secondary messenger. A chain of intracellular events lead to the physiological response contributed to the hormone.

    Heavy Resistance Exercise

    Heavy resistance exercise stimulates significant adaptions in trained muscles such as increased strength, size and power. Resistance training causes endocrine glands to secrete hormones. These hormones provide an excess of information to the body. These hormones elicit different responses. The pattern and duration of exercise greatly influence the type of hormone secreted.



    This in return greatly effects the tissue adaptions that occur. Hormonal increases that take place due to resistance training are different than responses activated by endurance exercise. Motor units are utilized with resistance training that are not with other types of exercise. These high threshold motor units are only activated when great amounts of force are needed, such as with heavy resistance training. The muscle fibers within these motor units are activated and a great amount of stress is placed upon the sarcolemmas of the muscle fibers. The stress elicits changes in sarcolemma permeability to nutrients and synthesis and sensitivity of receptors are affected. Finally, it is the force produced in the activated fibers that lead to the anabolic response in the muscle cells.

    During and following exercise, numerous hormonal secretions take place. The desired outcome is synthesis of actin and myosin and inhibition of protein breakdown. If the stress is to great or long in duration, catabolic forces such as cortisol take over the muscle. The hormonal responses depend on tissues stimulated, duration of exercise and needed amount of repair.

    Once a muscle has reached a high level of development, protein synthesis is no longer the key mechanism for growth. Thus decreasing protein breakdown is the number one contributor to muscular growth. Keep in mind that only the muscle fibers stimulated are subject to affect. This is why it is important to vary exercises. Only the fibers stimulated receive hormonal benefits. If you use the same exercise for biceps every time you train, you will not maximize growth because the same fibers are stimulated continuously. Angles and loading parameters control the extent of hormonal interaction within muscles.

    The response of muscles to hormones is dependent on a few factors. If there are great amounts of the hormone in the blood, the chances of affecting the receptors are greater. If the cell is close to its genetic ceiling, the receptor becomes less responsive to the hormone. With heavy resistance training the recovery ability correlates with muscle fiber size. Incorrect training protocols can result in the downside of hormones, catabolism. Interactions between hormones and muscles can negatively influence cellular structure or have a positive effect on growth.

    There is an array of factors that contribute to hypertrophy. However, increased force production cannot be contributed to hypertrophy alone. Neural factors play a great role in maximum force production. Each individual varies in forms of neurological efficiency just as they do with hormonal levels.

    Hormones In Blood

    Blood levels are sometimes used to test for the secretion of hormones. This can be a complex task because the hormonal levels are ever changing in the bloodstream. It should be noted that just because a hormone is present in the bloodstream does not mean that it will successfully reach the receptor site. Although, the higher concentrations of the hormones in the blood the greater possibility for the hormone to bind to the receptor.

    The ideal situation for anabolism is to have a higher number of anabolic hormones in the blood than catabolic hormones. This usually leads to positive cellular adaptions.

    The anabolic hormones we will be discussing are testosterone, growth hormone, insulin and insulin like growth factors. These are the primary hormones involved with muscular growth.

    Testosterone

    Everyone involved with the exercise industry has some conception of testosterone. To most it is an evil word, "TESTOSTERONE." This stuff makes people commit violent crimes, die of heart attacks and suffer from strokes. It also allows anyone to put on extraordinary amounts of muscle. Where do these ideas come from? They come from ignorant people who know zero about this hormone.

    Testosterone indirectly effects protein synthesis by releasing growth hormone, which increases the release of Insulin Growth Factor (IGF) from the liver. Testosterone has effects on the nervous system, which lead to increasing neurotransmitters and increasing neuromuscular junctions, which enhance muscle size. As neurological efficiency increases, force production also increases.

    The mechanism in which testosterone interacts with the cell nucleus is inexact. Once testosterone is secreted, a transport protein called globulin to a receptor site carries it. From here, a message is activated and sent to the cell nucleus. Protein synthesis is the result of this series of events. Concentrations of testosterone are often used as an anabolic marker. There are certain exercise variables that can have a positive effect on blood testosterone levels.

    They Are As Follows:


    Workouts lasting under sixty minutes.
    Multiple sets
    Compound exercises
    Short rest intervals (one minute)
    Heavy resistance, 80% - 90% of 1RM.
    Have you ever heard the saying, "Squat and deadlift and your whole body will grow." Elevating testosterone levels as well as stimulating large amounts of muscle mass are the reason this occurs. If you rely solely on the use of machines, try introducing compound exercises and expect your gains to accelerate.

     The majority of research done on hormonal responses in relation to exercise has been tested on male subjects. Testosterone responses have been credited as the major determinant in the difference between male and female muscularity and force production. On average, males produce about ten times the testosterone of females. Thus far, studies do not show any significant changes in women's testosterone levels due to exercise.

    Growth Hormone

    Growth hormone has been cited as a growth mechanism in skeletal muscle tissue and other tissues in the body. Growth hormone is important in the normal growth of a child as well as the role it plays in adapting to exercise.

    Some Of The Roles Of Growth Hormone Include:


    Increased protein synthesis
    Utilization of fatty acids
    Increasing amino acid transportation
    Increasing cartilage growth
    Promotes lipolysis
    Reduces carbohydrate utilization for energy
    Most studies say growth hormone is released due to neurological signals from the nervous system stimulated by exercise stress and anxiety. Signals to the hypothalamus cause a hormonal release that stimulates the secretion of growth hormone. Growth hormone also stimulates the release of IGFs from the liver. IGFs are potent anabolic agents, which enhance protein synthesis.

    Blood levels of growth hormone vary throughout the day. The highest levels of secretion occur during sleep. This is one of the reasons adequate sleep assists the body in recovering and growing properly. Exercise has been shown to increase growth hormone secretion at any time during the day.

    The pharmacological use of growth hormone is a highly debated subject. Some experts say growth hormone treatment is the main reason bodybuilders are much more muscular and ripped than they were in the past. Others report growth hormone is only beneficial to bodybuilders that simultaneously use anabolic steroids. Debating this topic is another article in itself. In this article the main concern is increasing endogenous mechanisms that result in growth hormone secretion. Further research is needed to tell us just how exogenous growth hormone compares to natural growth hormone production.

    Increased hydrogen ions appear to stimulate the release of growth hormone. This means higher blood lactate concentrations (closely associated with hydrogen ions) mean higher blood levels of growth hormone.

    Light resistance exercise has been shown to be non-effective in raising growth hormone levels. Kraemer found when using moderate resistance (10RM) with multiple sets and short rest periods (1 minute), serum growth hormone levels increased. By carefully designing your resistance-training program it is possible to reap the rewards of elevated growth hormone.

    When going through the menstrual cycle, women have higher blood levels of growth hormone than men. Research on females has shown when using heavy resistance (5RM) and resting for three minutes between sets, no significant rise in growth hormone occurs. However, when using moderate resistance (10RM) with short rest periods (1 minute) rises occur. Varying routines is important for altering levels of growth hormone.

    Insulin

    Insulin is a peptide hormone that is secreted from the beta cells of the pancreas. Insulin can have positive effects on skeletal muscle, but it can also enhance bodyfat levels.

    Insulin Functions Are As Follows:


    Lowers blood glucose.
    Promotes cellular uptake of carbohydrates, amino acids and fatty acids.
    Excessive insulin results in fat storage.
    Training has been shown to increase the sensitivity of insulin. The insulin drop during exercise is reduced by the training effect. Further research needs to be conducted to determine insulin's response in regards to training.


    "Injectable insulin is very dangerous and can result in fatality within a matter of minutes."
    Insulin acts as a powerful anabolic agent by shuttling amino acids into the muscle cell. Many experts view this hormone as the most powerful anabolic agent in existence. This is why the use of injectable insulin has become commonplace among bodybuilders. Injectable insulin is very dangerous and can result in fatality within a matter of minutes. If you use injectable insulin be sure it is under the supervision of a doctor.

     Manipulating insulin levels is important for physique purposes. The right amounts at the right time result in muscular gains while chronically high levels result in fat storage. Excessive levels of insulin reduce testosterone and growth hormone levels. High levels of insulin can also stop the production of eicosanoids. Jay Robb has stated that production of eicosanoids is synthesized within the body from essential fatty acids especially from linolenic acid. Levels of insulin can be manipulated by carbohydrate intake. Too much of a good thing can result in a bad thing.

    IGF

    Insulin like growth factors (IGFs) are secreted by the liver after growth hormone signals liver DNA to synthesize them. IGFs are classified as IGF-I, a 70 amino-acid polypeptide, or IGF-II, a 67 amino-acid polypeptide. IGFs travel in the blood while being attached to binding proteins where they attach to receptor sites.

    The disruption of various cells including fat and muscle cells stimulates the release of IGF. Fat cells store high levels of IGF, while skeletal muscle contains small amounts. It is likely that non-liver cells release IGF without the assistance of growth hormone. It is also possible that specific cells produce IGF, but do not release it into the bloodstream.

    Binding proteins play an important part in the function of IGF. IGF has been shown to stimulate the release of binding protein within the muscle itself, therefore changing the cells responsiveness to IGF. Nutritional profile has also shown to be an important factor in IGF responsiveness. Sudden changes in nitrogen balance and protein intake seem to effect IGF levels. Binding proteins act as a reservoir for IGF. These proteins release IGF once a receptor site is open. Thus the amount of IGF degradation is reduced.

    At this time, it is unclear how heavy resistance training effects IGF levels. One study showed that a variety of different exercise patterns elicited an IGF rise about two hours after training. Further research needs to be conducted to learn more about exercise effects on IGF levels.

    Controlling anabolic hormones is one of the most important aspects of controlling your physique. These powerful hormones previously discussed can help you to reach your fullest potential.

    Main Catabolic Hormone

    The most powerful catabolic hormone is cortisol. Minimizing cortisol levels can assist greatly in maximizing your growth potential.

    Cortisol is a hormone that is produced by the adrenal cortex. This hormone is released to help the body deal with stress and provide energy to the body. The problem with this hormone is the catabolic effects it has on the body.

    These Effects Are As Follows:

    Increases proteolytic enzymes (enzymes that degrade protein)
    Turns amino acids to carbohydrates
    Inhibits protein synthesis
    Breakdown of collagen and ligament tissue
    Cortisol has greater catabolic effects in fast twitch fibers in comparison to slow twitch fibers
    In cases of injury, cortisol elevation results in nitrogen degradation and causes a loss of contractile protein. This loss results in muscle atrophy. Inside the muscle, anabolic hormones such as insulin and testosterone counter the actions of cortisol. If the anabolic hormones occupy a greater number of receptors, protein is maintained or enhanced. When cortisol is bound to a greater number of receptors, protein breakdown is enhanced. Ensuring that anabolic hormones are higher than catabolic hormones is important for muscle maintenance and growth.

    Resistance training that utilizes high volume; large muscle groups and shorter rest periods are responsible for the highest levels of cortisol. This is interesting because the stimulus that causes the greatest catabolic effect also causes the greatest growth hormone response. While cortisol levels promote breakdown, short time increases could also help with muscular growth. Muscles must be broken down in order to repair themselves and grow. Short-term cortisol elevation would help this process. Athletes often use testosterone-cortisol ratio blood levels to determine if their bodies are in a growth state. This sounds logical, but this ratio has proven unsuccessful as being a marker for mass and strength gains. The multiple roles of cortisol make the test inadequate in being a true marker of anabolism or catabolism.

    In conclusion, it is evident that hormones are responsive to muscle tissue.
    References

    1. Baechle, T.R. (1994) Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning. Human Kinetics.
    2. Dipasquale, M. (1995) The Anabolic Diet. Optimum Training Systems.
    3. Hale, J. (2000) Optimum Physique. Jamie Hale.
    4. Hatfield, F.C. (1993) Fitness The Complete Guide. The International Sports Sciences Publishing.
    5. Robb, J. (1994) The Fat Burning Diet. Loving Health Publications.


    Honnr gitt av : henrikhardcoar, 23. juni 2009, 16:44
    4  Trening / HIT / SV: Trene HIT 10. november 2005, 11:01
    Det er et veldig omdiskutert konsept, kanskje først og fremst fordi HIT markedsførte seg i sterk opposisjon til datidens utbredte volumprogrammer, noe som førte til mang en livlig debatt..

    Til dine spørsmål vil jeg si:

    1) Opplegget ditt ser greit ut

    2) Jeg hadde veldig gode resultater med "HIT" som liknet på ditt opplegg, men:
    -det passer slett ikke for de med mindre enn 18-24 måneders systematisk trening bak seg
    -man bør ta 1-2 uker med veldig lite og lett trening etter 5-6 ukers trening
    -det kan være en fordel å rotere øvelser (ala DC).
    -jeg fant etetrhvert ut at det var mer effektivt å kjøre "HIT" i slike korte faser, for så å trene med større volum i fasene mellom "HIT" trening

    3) Hvor krevende? Det er mange utbredte misforståelser om HIT, slik Mike Mentzer populariserte det. Om man leser det Mentzer faktisk skrev skal man særlig legge vekt på at han gang på gang understreket i sine siste bidrag:

    -før loggbok. Du skal øke vektene eller antall reps per sett HVER trening (men min erfaring er altså at man må "cruise" etter en drøy måned, før man starter på nytt med progresjon)
    -du må konsentrere deg voldsomt for å gjøre arbeidssettet 100% effektivt. Dette er umulig uten å ha litt erfaring, og det krever voldsomt fokus - settet skal kjøres til konsentrisk failure
    -likevel skal man bruke hodet: man kan ikke gang på gang kjøre droppsett og masse forced reps - det fører til stagnasjon. Mentzer anbefalte derfor å kjøre ett, eller to for erfarne, rest-pause sett etter arbeidssettet (med meget kort pause-10-15 sekunder).
    -alle repetisjoner skal kjøres med god teknikk.

    Ernæring var neppe Mentzers sterkeste felt, men han var motstander av bulk. Når det gjaldt proteininntak mente han at karbohydrater var såpass viktig og protein-besparende at dette var vel så viktig som proteiner. Han anbefalte derfor en "balansert" diett med mildt energioverskudd i perioder hvor man skulle legge på seg muskler, og han argumenterte for at 95% av alle kost-tilskudd var bortkastet.

    Bortsett fra dette med ernæring og rotasjon på øvelser, er flere av programmene hans temmelig lik DC-trening. Jeg mener personlig at DC har forbedret HIT pga rotasjon av øvelser, systematisk cruising, en god 2-splitt og stretching, men nå er jeg i fare for å tråkke endel folk på tærne.  Smiley Dante har selv sagt om dagens trening at "We all train HIT", og det er noe i det. Ellington Darden er en annen som har forsøkt å utvikle HIT, hvor han anbefaler å trene hver muskelgruppe 2 ganger per uke, i en hard og en mer moderat økt for hver muskelgruppe.
    Honnr gitt av : Junkfood-mannen, 02. januar 2009, 04:35
    5  Trening / Andre Treningsaktiviteter / SV: Treningsprogram for å bli fallskjermjeger eller marinejeger 13. april 2004, 14:55
    Tror dere jeg har gode sjanser til å bli fallskjermjeger hvis jeg gjør dette til jeg skal til sesjon?
    Har trent styrketrening med vekter en god stund, og har ganske godt treningsgrunnlag fra før. Kommer til å trene med vekter og ta proteintilskudd i tillegg.

    Takker for svar!  biggrin

    Jeg har vært i jegertjenesten, så kan kanskje bidra litt. Det er bare å trene, etterhvert som formen blir bedre, og kroppen tåler mer, vil jeg spesielt anbefale å trene opp evnen til fettforbrenning. Med det mener jeg å trene i den tilstanden hvor kroppen er gått tom for sitt primære drivstoff: glukose. Hvis du ikke er vant til å møte denne veggen, vil du få deg en stygg overraskelse ved oppstart av utdannelsen. Tilsvarende vil du ha et stort overtak, ikke minst mentalt, hvis det å gå på fett er "piece of cake". Poenget er at få ungdommer er vant til å brenne masse kalorier samtidig som de ikke får i seg noe særlig næring. Dette må imidlertid en jeger tåle- i ukevis!
    Anbefaling; tren med veldig lav intensitet i 2 til 7 timer en gang per uke (løp/gange/sykkel/ski, øk etter hvert). pass på å få i deg vann underveis. Det er også lurt å ha med seg litt penger, hvis du får problemer og må bryte treningsøkta. Eksperimenter med forskjellige former for næringsinntak underveis.

    Til slutt til alle som har ønsker om å gå gjennom en slik utdanning (jeg har best erfaring med MJK og KJK); erfaringsmessig vet vi at det er en meget liten andel som kommer seg gjennom grunnutdanningen, til tross for at gjennomsnittet er meget godt trent. Tenk nøye gjennom dette; det er en grunn til at meget veltrent ungdom gir seg, og det er motivasjonen. Det er av og til ganske trist å se hvordan folk har forberedt seg fysisk, men ikke mentalt - så står de der plutselig helt knust under aspirantperioden, ikke pga det fysiske, men fordi de reagerer annerledes på stress (særlig usikkerhet i enkelte situasjoner) enn de hadde trodd.

    Tenk igjennom alle ubehagelige situasjoner du kan tenke deg - hvordan vil du opptre i disse?
    har du spesielle svakheter - er det noe du er redd for, eller føler ubehag ved? Hva skal du gjøre for å bli sterkere i slike situasjoner?

    Lykke til!
    Honnr gitt av : yyiiyy, 17. august 2008, 15:27
    6  Arkiv / The Best Of Treningsforum / Å tøye, eller ikke å tøye... 20. mai 2004, 16:05
    I løpet av to drøye tiår hvor jeg har hatt trening som hobby, er det få tema hvor oppfatningene har svingt så mye i takt med nye teorier og "forskningsresultat" som når det gjelder "stretching" eller tøying for ulike kategorer idrettsutøvere. I 1980 ble jeg fortalt at man alltid skulle tøye. I 1985 kjente jeg personlig ingen kroppsbyggere som tøyet etter trening eller på treningsfrie dager. I 1995 kom det så rapporter om at tøying etter hard trening bare førte til større mikroskader på muskelaturen, så på slike dager skulle man la det være.
    I dag ser det ut til at stretching er i ferd med å få bli mer populært blant kroppsbyggere (se feks. DC-opplegget).

    Hva er din mening om stretching for de som trener for optimal muskelvekst? Noen som har interessante referanser å dele med oss, eller erfaringer?

    Som en liten appetizer legger jeg ved ett syn på saken fra theallineed.com:

    "When you think about gaining muscle, stretching is probably not the first thing that pops into your head. But did you know that stretching plays a critical role in building muscle?

    Every muscle in your body is enclosed in a bag of tough connective tissue known as fascia. Fascia is important for holding your muscles in their proper place in your body.

     
    But your fascia may also be holding back your muscle growth. Think for a moment about your muscles. You train them and feed them properly. They want to grow and will grow but something is holding them back. They have no room to grow!

    Because fascia is so tough, it doesn't allow the muscle room to expand. It is like stuffing a large pillow into a small pillowcase. The size of the muscle won't change regardless of how hard you train or how well you eat because the connective tissue around your muscles is constricting the muscles within.

    The best example of this is the calf muscle. The lower leg is riddled with fascia because of its tremendous weight-bearing duties in the body. It is because of this fascia that many trainers have great difficulty developing their calves.

    The solution: stretching.

    Using the pillowcase example from above, imagine you can expand the size of the pillowcase by stretching it. Suddenly, the pillow within has more room and will expand to fill that new space.

    By stretching your muscles under specific conditions, you can actually stretch your fascia and give your muscles more room to grow.

    The key to effective fascial stretching is the pump. The best time to stretch to expand the bags that are holding in your muscles is when your muscles are pumped up full of blood.

    When your muscles are fully pumped up, they are pressing against the fascia. By stretching hard at that time, you increase that pressure on the fascia greatly, which can lead to expansion of the fascia.

    One of the major reasons Arnold Schwarzenegger had such incredible chest development was that he finished his chest workouts with dumbell flyes, an exercise that emphasizes the stretched position of the pectoral muscles. He would pump his chest up full of blood during the workout then do flyes, holding the stretch at the bottom of the flye. This gave his chest room to grow to amazing proportions.

    Fascial stretching is more rigorous than regular stretching but the results can be amazing. When you stretch hard enough to cause the fascia to expand, you will really feel it! When you are stretching the fascia, you should feel a powerful pulling sensation and pressure as the muscle works against the fascia to expand it.

    Be sure you do not stretch so hard that you cause the muscle to tear or cause injury to yourself. You will rapidly learn to distinguish the difference between a good stretch and a bad stretch. You should not feel any sharp pain, just a steady pull.

    Hold each stretch for at least 20 to 30 seconds as you must give your fascia time to be affected by the stretch. Stretch hard like this only when you have a fully pumped muscle as you must give your fascia a reason to expand. If your muscles aren't pumped, just stretch normally.

    One set of hard stretching after each set you do for a muscle group, besides the obvious benefits of increased flexibility, can have an incredible effect on the size of your muscles and their further ability to grow".
    Honnr gitt av : Vidis, 30. juli 2007, 19:48
    7  Generelt / Antidoping / Sv: Steroider farlige? 10. februar 2007, 03:12
    Jeg synes hvertfall ikke det står noe mer respekt av en som bruker aas for å nå sine mål, enn en som trener reint og klarer sine realistiske mål, selvom tallene ikke er like "imponerende"

    Det er en fair vurdering.
    Uansett hva man måtte mene om doping er det en kjensgjerning at blant de som konkurrerer i kroppsbygging, så er 95% av deltakerne "juiced to the gills". Å tro at man kan stille i konkurranse med minimal fettprosent og virkelig stor muskelmasse uten disse hjelpemidlene er naivt.
    Honnr gitt av : TottoRosland, 10. februar 2007, 18:41
    8  Generelt / Antidoping / Sv: Steroider farlige? 10. februar 2007, 03:12
    Jeg synes hvertfall ikke det står noe mer respekt av en som bruker aas for å nå sine mål, enn en som trener reint og klarer sine realistiske mål, selvom tallene ikke er like "imponerende"

    Det er en fair vurdering.
    Uansett hva man måtte mene om doping er det en kjensgjerning at blant de som konkurrerer i kroppsbygging, så er 95% av deltakerne "juiced to the gills". Å tro at man kan stille i konkurranse med minimal fettprosent og virkelig stor muskelmasse uten disse hjelpemidlene er naivt.
    Honnr gitt av : True, 10. februar 2007, 16:15
    9  Trening / Andre Treningsaktiviteter / SV: Treningsprogram for å bli fallskjermjeger eller marinejeger 13. april 2004, 14:55
    Tror dere jeg har gode sjanser til å bli fallskjermjeger hvis jeg gjør dette til jeg skal til sesjon?
    Har trent styrketrening med vekter en god stund, og har ganske godt treningsgrunnlag fra før. Kommer til å trene med vekter og ta proteintilskudd i tillegg.

    Takker for svar!  biggrin

    Jeg har vært i jegertjenesten, så kan kanskje bidra litt. Det er bare å trene, etterhvert som formen blir bedre, og kroppen tåler mer, vil jeg spesielt anbefale å trene opp evnen til fettforbrenning. Med det mener jeg å trene i den tilstanden hvor kroppen er gått tom for sitt primære drivstoff: glukose. Hvis du ikke er vant til å møte denne veggen, vil du få deg en stygg overraskelse ved oppstart av utdannelsen. Tilsvarende vil du ha et stort overtak, ikke minst mentalt, hvis det å gå på fett er "piece of cake". Poenget er at få ungdommer er vant til å brenne masse kalorier samtidig som de ikke får i seg noe særlig næring. Dette må imidlertid en jeger tåle- i ukevis!
    Anbefaling; tren med veldig lav intensitet i 2 til 7 timer en gang per uke (løp/gange/sykkel/ski, øk etter hvert). pass på å få i deg vann underveis. Det er også lurt å ha med seg litt penger, hvis du får problemer og må bryte treningsøkta. Eksperimenter med forskjellige former for næringsinntak underveis.

    Til slutt til alle som har ønsker om å gå gjennom en slik utdanning (jeg har best erfaring med MJK og KJK); erfaringsmessig vet vi at det er en meget liten andel som kommer seg gjennom grunnutdanningen, til tross for at gjennomsnittet er meget godt trent. Tenk nøye gjennom dette; det er en grunn til at meget veltrent ungdom gir seg, og det er motivasjonen. Det er av og til ganske trist å se hvordan folk har forberedt seg fysisk, men ikke mentalt - så står de der plutselig helt knust under aspirantperioden, ikke pga det fysiske, men fordi de reagerer annerledes på stress (særlig usikkerhet i enkelte situasjoner) enn de hadde trodd.

    Tenk igjennom alle ubehagelige situasjoner du kan tenke deg - hvordan vil du opptre i disse?
    har du spesielle svakheter - er det noe du er redd for, eller føler ubehag ved? Hva skal du gjøre for å bli sterkere i slike situasjoner?

    Lykke til!
    Honnr gitt av : spineshank, 22. januar 2007, 00:42
    10  Kosthold / Kosttilskudd / SV: HASTER, Tollerene er vrien. 12. oktober 2005, 10:12
    Jeg vet at det finnes smutthull, men jeg sier det gjerne enda en gang: å bestille tilskudd fra USA kan medføre masse tull med tollen (ja, jeg har opplevd det). Mye lettere fra EU (eksvis UK), dersom man sjekker reglene. Om man er maksimalt uheldig og tilskuddet inneholder noe som er "forbudt" (det er urent), og dette faktisk blir sjekket, kan det likevel bli ubehagelig.
    For min egen del bestiller jeg derfor fra norske webbutikker: rask levering, ingen ubehagelige overraskelser og jeg gir et ørlite bidrag til noen norske arbeidsplasser.
    Honnr gitt av : microtrauma, 08. januar 2007, 14:40
    11  Generelt / Diskutèr artikler / SV: Muskler og mat 03. oktober 2004, 16:18
    Veldig bra og interessant artikkel!

    Har du noen formening om hvor mye dette høye karboinntaket er relatert til "glycogen depletion" i muskler/lever? Får man samme effekten av 1,2 g/kg i 4 t etter en treningsøkt med høy intensitet/lavt volum, som ved medium intensitet og høyt volum?

    Jeg vil anta at man også bør innta whey protein sammen med karben hver halvtime for å få enda høyere insulinnivåer?


    Tusen takk, det var ikke så rare greiene, men kanskje mer et innlegg i en debatt som kommer til å fortsette lenge ennå tror jeg. Jeg skal ikke engang forsøke å gi noe svar basert på vitenskapelig argumentasjon her, men jeg tror du har helt rett i alle antakelsene dine. Det vil være store forskjeller på hvor mye glykogen man har brent i en økt, avhengig av intensitet, varighet, muskelmassen til utøveren, hvilke og hvor mange muskelgrupper man har trent osv osv. Jeg er personlig av den oppfatning at den anbefalingen som er gitt i denne forskningsrapporten først og fremst gjelder store byggere som trener med høy intensitet. Ser feks at John Berardi ikke anbefaler karbs med veldig høy GI i mer enn en time etter trening. For en viderekommen utøver er problemet med dette at en mindre mengde karbs etter trening ikke vil gi noen særlig økning i insulin-verdiene. Jeg tror også det udiskutabelt er heldig å tilføre protein, gjerne whey, innimellom karbohydratene i flere timer etter en tung treningsøkt.

    Når det gjelder spørsmålet ditt om varighet og intensitet på treningsøkta, er jeg ute av stand til å gi noe svar. Helt subjektivt er min erfaring at trening med lav intensitet i form av kardio etc ikke fører til så stort behov for raske karbs rett etter trening. Når det gjelder vekt-trening med intensiteter over 50-60-prosent av 1RM, vil imidlertid musklenes lagre av glukose reduseres raskt. Videre virker det som om jeg kan konsumere mye raske karbs etter vekt-trening uten at dette fører til fett-lagring. Men personlig foretrekker jeg å bruke litt forskjellige kilder til karbs her, først maltodextrin, så yoghurt, skummet melk med whey for eksempel. Endelig kan man selvsagt diskutere hvor stor effekt dette har for muskelbyggingen, vi vil selvsagt ikke oppnå samme virkning med mat som de store byggerne gjør ved å injisere hurtig-virkende insulin rett etter trening....Men det kan jo være at vi lever atskillig sunnere tross alt.
    Honnr gitt av : bonaqua, 23. desember 2006, 21:42
    12  Trening / Kroppsbygging og Fitness / Sv: hvor lenge lever dem 21. desember 2006, 23:11
    Umulig spørsmål, seff. For å prøve å svare litt seriøst-
     
    Hovedskillet går mellom dem som

    a) vet hva de gjør og som er genetisk heldig stilt
    og
    b) negasjonen av a)

    Jeg vil tro at det finnes konkurrerende byggere som har brukt store mengder som har tatt mye bedre vare på helsa si enn en del vel, "mosjonistbolere" (effektiv regulering av blodtrykk, brukbar lipidprofil og kontroll med hemoglobin). Det er en kjensgjerning at det finnes medisiner som kan hjelpe mot mye, og det er en kjensgjerning at mange som bruker AAS ikke er opptatt av å bruke slike medikament.

    Tragedien i "opplysningsarbeidet" mot doping for folk som trener for store muskler er at farene ved enkelte medikament som ganske feilaktig blir sett på som "milde" ikke kommer fram, samtidig som medikament som ikke har bivirkninger i samme målestokk slås under ett med alt som er av AAS.

    Under (forståelige) argumentet om at man (dopingtelefonen feks) ikke vil gi opplysninger om hvordan man kan bruke AAS, går disse bokstavlig talt  livsviktige nyansene fullstendig tapt.

    Resultatet er at stadig nye ungdommer gjør helt håpløse ting som definitivt fremskynder alvorlig sykdom!

    Men når det er sagt- at folk som Yates og Coleman er vandrende medisinske eksperimenter er neppe en overdrivelse Wink

    Honnr gitt av : SilverFox, 22. desember 2006, 08:59
    13  Trening / Kroppsbygging og Fitness / Sv: hvor lenge lever dem 21. desember 2006, 23:11
    Umulig spørsmål, seff. For å prøve å svare litt seriøst-
     
    Hovedskillet går mellom dem som

    a) vet hva de gjør og som er genetisk heldig stilt
    og
    b) negasjonen av a)

    Jeg vil tro at det finnes konkurrerende byggere som har brukt store mengder som har tatt mye bedre vare på helsa si enn en del vel, "mosjonistbolere" (effektiv regulering av blodtrykk, brukbar lipidprofil og kontroll med hemoglobin). Det er en kjensgjerning at det finnes medisiner som kan hjelpe mot mye, og det er en kjensgjerning at mange som bruker AAS ikke er opptatt av å bruke slike medikament.

    Tragedien i "opplysningsarbeidet" mot doping for folk som trener for store muskler er at farene ved enkelte medikament som ganske feilaktig blir sett på som "milde" ikke kommer fram, samtidig som medikament som ikke har bivirkninger i samme målestokk slås under ett med alt som er av AAS.

    Under (forståelige) argumentet om at man (dopingtelefonen feks) ikke vil gi opplysninger om hvordan man kan bruke AAS, går disse bokstavlig talt  livsviktige nyansene fullstendig tapt.

    Resultatet er at stadig nye ungdommer gjør helt håpløse ting som definitivt fremskynder alvorlig sykdom!

    Men når det er sagt- at folk som Yates og Coleman er vandrende medisinske eksperimenter er neppe en overdrivelse Wink

    Honnr gitt av : anon30, 22. desember 2006, 01:22
    14  Kosthold / Kosttilskudd / Sv: Grønn Te ekstrakt 29. november 2006, 22:55
    Ringer en bjelle det der! Skal vurderer det opp i mot rein grønn te.


    TN har vel og noe som inneholder Grønn Te-ekstrakt, samt mye annet som skal være bra på deff.

    Det har de sikkert, mange produkter der ute. Grønn te - ekstrakt i seg selv er uansett uhyre gunstig, de positive helseeffektene er enorme. Jeg bruker det nå hver dag året rundt, i moderate doser.
    Men om du får tak i Therm-X er det noe som i hvertfall fungerte veldig bra for undertegnede. Jeg gikk ned 10 kg på 5 måneder i år, hovedsakelig pga diett, men Therm-X var en utrolig god hjelp, antakelig først og fremst pga den appetittdempende effekten.
    Honnr gitt av : Germ, 30. november 2006, 15:27
    15  Generelt / Loggbok Online / Sv: Benpressern prøver å bli sterkere! 28. november 2006, 21:35
    Ser jo ut til at treninga di går veldig bra! Jeg har ikke fått rekapitulert loggen din siden sist, men konkurrerer du i styrkeløft, eller har planer om det?
    Honnr gitt av : Benpressmannen, 30. november 2006, 15:11
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