Skrevet av Emne: Sticky: Nyreskader av proteinpulver?  (Lest 83232 ganger)

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SV: Sticky: Nyreskader av proteinpulver?
« #60 : 30. november 2005, 23:35 »
Det har du rett i. Smiley Proteinpulver er ment som tilskudd for å dekke opp proteinbehovet hvis du ikke får i deg nok gjennom vanlig mat, samt at det uansett kan være lurt med en shake rett før og rett etter trening sammen med raske karbs.

H

Jeg får de raske karbs. gjennom et par bananer og det tvinger nesten treneren vår i oss etter treningen.

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SV: Sticky: Nyreskader av proteinpulver?
« #61 : 05. desember 2005, 04:00 »
http://www.trening.no/svar.php?kat=kosthold&id=614
Her påpeker han at proteinpulver er skadelig, så det er ikke rart at spørsmålet om proteintilskudd var skadelig for nyrene kom opp hele tiden før vi fikk stickyen her... Det er ihvertfall sikkert at det er mye vranglære...
Ikke at jeg videre vet hva som er riktig og galt, men det der er det eneste jeg har lest som påpeker at proteintilskudd er farlig...

Skjønner i det heletatt ikke hvordan han kan skrive det han skriver. Dette må jo være det han "tror" og har hørt et sted av en kar som hadde en kammerat som kjente en fyr som fortalte at det var skadelig med for mye proteinpulver for det hadde han hørt et sted..
The only way to keep your health is to eat what you don't want, drink what you don't like, and do what you'd rather not.
-Mark Twain
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SV: Sticky: Nyreskader av proteinpulver?
« #62 : 19. februar 2006, 12:51 »
er ikke pulver syrevasket?
Pain is a name and gain is a game, forget the name and play the game ?

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SV: Sticky: Nyreskader av proteinpulver?
« #63 : 09. mars 2006, 15:37 »
Nei, jeg har ikke hørt at man får nyreskader av protenpulver... Dama er sykepleier, og hun sier at jeg heller burde være mer forsiktig med doseringen av kreatin, og at jeg drikker mye vann når jeg tar dette. Det er nok heller her risikoen for nyreskader ligger Wink

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SV: Sticky: Nyreskader av proteinpulver?
« #64 : 11. mars 2006, 12:31 »
tenkte bare jeg skulle legge til den linken her fra lommelegen, som jeg kom over.
les 5. avsnitt i lommelegens svar

http://www.lommelegen.no/svar/svar5357.asp
Klikk her for min bildeprofil

My drinkingteam has a racing problem

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SV: Sticky: Nyreskader av proteinpulver?
« #65 : 12. april 2006, 23:30 »
tenkte bare jeg skulle legge til den linken her fra lommelegen, som jeg kom over.
les 5. avsnitt i lommelegens svar

http://www.lommelegen.no/svar/svar5357.asp

Flott link, gode svar fra lommelegen ja.
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SV: Sticky: Nyreskader av proteinpulver?
« #66 : 12. april 2006, 23:58 »
Nei, jeg har ikke hørt at man får nyreskader av protenpulver... Dama er sykepleier, og hun sier at jeg heller burde være mer forsiktig med doseringen av kreatin, og at jeg drikker mye vann når jeg tar dette. Det er nok heller her risikoen for nyreskader ligger Wink

Det er heller ikke påvist noen økt risiko for nyreskader ved kreatinbruk. Men å supplere med mye vann er uansett en god idé.

Den lommelegen der virket forbløffende opdatert, i motsetning til Drevon & co.  Smiley

H
Erfaring er den talentløses trøst

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SV: Sticky: Nyreskader av proteinpulver?
« #67 : 29. april 2006, 12:33 »
Kaster inn en liten brannfakkel i diskusjonen om protein og nyrer.


Protein Overload
Muscle, vitality, strength, power, energy, vigor, aggressiveness, and liveliness are words that come to mind when people think of the benefits of protein in their diet.  The truth is quite the opposite.  Bone loss, osteoporisis, kidney damage, kidney stones, immune dysfunction, arthritis, cancer promotion, low-energy, and overall poor health are the real consequences from overemphasizing protein.  Protein serves as raw material to build tissues.  Without sufficient protein from your diet, your body would be in trouble – but, aside from starvation, this never happens.   Yes, a little protein is good, but more is not better. Protein consumed beyond our needs is a health hazard as devastating as excess dietary fat and cholesterol.  Unfortunately, almost everyone on the typical Western diet is overburdened with protein to the point of physical collapse.  The public has almost no awareness of problems of protein overload, but scientists have known about the damaging effects of excess protein for more than a century.

In his book, Physiology Economy in Nutrition, Russell Henry Chittenden, former President of the American Physiological Society (APS) and Professor of Physiological Chemistry at Yale, wrote in 1905, “Proteid (protein) decomposition products are a constant menace to the well-being of the body; any quantity of proteid or albuminous food beyond the real requirements of the body may prove distinctly injurious…Further, it requires no imagination to understand the constant strain upon the liver and kidneys, to say nothing of the possible influence upon the central and peripheral parts of the nervous system, by these nitrogenous waste products which the body ordinarily gets rid of as speedily as possible.”1

 

What are Your Construction (Protein) Needs?

Protein from your diet is required to build new cells, synthesize hormones, and repair damaged and worn out tissues.  So how much do you need? 

The protein lost from the body each day from shedding skin, sloughing intestine, and other miscellaneous losses is about 3 grams per day (0.05 grams/Kg).3  Add to this loss other physiological requirements, such as growth and repairs.  The final tally, based on solid scientific research, is: your total daily need for protein is about 20 to 30 grams.4,5  Plant proteins easily meet these needs.6

So what are people consuming?  Those living in many rural Asian societies consume about 40 to 60 grams from their diet of starch (mostly rice) with vegetables.6  On the Western diet, typical food choices centered around meat and dairy products, “a well-balanced diet,” provides about 100 to 160 grams of protein a day.  A traditional Eskimo, eating marine animals, or someone on the Atkins diet, from various kinds of meat and dairy, might be consuming 200 to 400 grams a day.7  Notice that there can be a 10-fold (1000%) difference from our basic requirements and the amount some people consume.  The resilience of the human body allows for survival under conditions of incredible over-consumption.

 

Once the body’s needs are met, then the excess must be removed.  The liver converts the excess protein into urea and other nitrogen-containing breakdown products, which are finally eliminated through the kidneys as part of the urine. 

 

Excess Protein Burdens the Kidneys and Liver

Processing all that excess dietary protein – as much as 300 grams (10 ounces) a day –causes wear and tear on the kidneys; and as a result, on average, 25% of kidney function is lost over a lifetime (70 years) from consuming the Western diet.8,9   Fortunately, the kidneys are built with large reserve capacity and the effects of losing one-quarter of kidney function are of no consequence for otherwise healthy people.  However, people who have already lost kidney function for other reasons – from an accident, donation of a kidney, infection, diabetes, and hypertension – may suffer life-threatening consequences from a diet no higher in protein than the average American consumes.10,11

The time-honored fundamental treatment for people with failing kidneys is a low-protein diet.  End-stage kidney failure, requiring dialysis, can usually be postponed or avoided by patients fortunate enough to learn about the benefits of a low-protein diet.10-13 

People suffering with liver failure are also placed on diets low in protein as fundamental therapy – short of a liver transplant, this is the most important therapy they will receive.  During the end stages of liver failure, patients will often fall into a coma from the build-up of protein breakdown products (hepatic coma).  A change to a cost-free, very low-protein diet can cause these dying people to awaken.  Well planned, plant-food based diets are particularly effective with both kidney and liver disease.14,15

Excess Protein Damages the Bones = Osteoporosis

Worldwide, rates of hip fractures (and kidney stones) increase with increasing animal protein consumption (including dairy products).  For example, people from the USA, Canada, Norway, Sweden, Australia, and New Zealand have the highest rates of osteoporosis. 15,16  The lowest rates are among people who eat the fewest animal-derived foods (these people are also on lower calcium diets) – like the people from rural Asia and rural Africa.15,16 

Osteoporosis is caused by several controllable factors; however, the most important one is the foods we choose – especially the amount of animal protein and the foods high in acid.17-19  The high acid foods are meat, poultry, fish, seafood, and hard cheeses – parmesan cheese is the most acidic of all foods commonly consumed.20 This acid must be neutralized by the body.21  Carbonate, citrate and sodium are alkaline materials released from the bones to neutralize the acids.  Fruits and vegetables are alkaline and as a result a diet high in these plant foods will neutralize acid and preserve bones.  The acidic condition of the body caused by the Western diet also raises cortisol (steroid) levels. 22 Elevated cortisol causes severe chronic bone loss – just like giving steroid medication for arthritis causes severe osteoporosis.

 

Consequence Two: Kidney Stones

Once materials are released from the solid bone, the calcium and other bone substances move through the blood stream to the kidneys where they are eliminated in the urine. In an effort to remove the overabundance of waste protein, the flow of blood through the kidneys (glomerular filtration rate) increases – the result: calcium is filtered out of the body.  Naturally, the kidneys attempt to return much of this filtered calcium back to the body; unfortunately, the acid and sulfur-containing amino acids from the animal foods thwart the body’s attempts to conserve calcium.  The final result is each 10 grams of dietary protein in excess of our needs (30 grams daily) increases daily urinary calcium loss by 16 mg.  Another way of looking at the effects is: doubling protein intake from our diet increases the loss of calcium in our urine by 50%.25  Plant proteins (plant food-bases) do not have these calcium and bone losing effects under normal living conditions.

Once this bone material arrives in the collecting systems of the kidney it easily precipitates into sold formations known as kidney stones.27   Over 90% of kidney stones found in people following a high-protein, Western diet are formed primarily of bone-derived calcium.  Following a healthy diet is the best way to prevent kidney stones.28

Toxic Sulfur Distinguishes Animal Foods

The qualities of the proteins we consume are as important as the quantities.  One very important distinction between animal and plant-derived protein is that animal proteins contain very large amounts of the basic element sulfur.  This sulfur is found as two of the twenty primary amino acids, methionine and cysteine.  Derived from these two primary sulfur-containing amino acids are several other sulfur-containing amino acids – these are keto-methionine, cystine, homocysteine, cystathionine, taurine, cysteic acid.


 
 
Methionine
 Valine
 

The yellow sphere represents the element sulfur.



Even though sulfur-containing amino acids are essential for our survival, an excess of these amino acids beyond our needs places a critical burden upon our body and detracts from our health in six important ways:

1)   Amino acids, as the name implies are acids; the sulfur-containing amino acids are the strongest acids of all, they breakdown into powerful sulfuric acid.  Excess acid, as discussed above, is a primary cause of bone loss leading to osteoporosis and kidney stone formation.29

2)  Methionine is metabolized into homocysteine – animal foods are the major source of the amino acid, homocysteine, in people – the more meat in the diet, the higher a person’s blood level of homocysteine.  A diet high in fruits and vegetables lowers the levels of this amino acid.  Epidemiological and clinical studies have proven homocysteine to be an independent risk factor for heart attacks, strokes, closure of the arteries to the legs (peripheral vascular disease), blood clots in the legs (venous thrombosis), thinking problems (cognitive impairment), and even worse mental troubles, like dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and depression.30

3) Sulfur feeds cancerous tumors.  Cancer cell metabolism is dependent upon methionine being in the diet; whereas, normal cells can grow on a methionine-free diet (feeding off of other sulfur-containing amino acids).  This methionine-dependency has been demonstrated for breast, lung, colon, kidney, melanoma, and brain cancers.31,32  Increasing methionine in the diet of animals promotes the growth of cancer.33

There is also evidence of cancer promoting effects of methionine mediated through a powerful growth stimulating hormone, called insulin-like growth factor - 1 (IGF-1).34  Meat and dairy products raise IGF-1 levels and promote the growth of cancers of the breast, colon, prostate, and lung.35 

4)  Sulfur from sulfur-containing amino acids is known to be toxic to the tissues of the intestine, and to have deleterious effects on the human colon, even at low levels.36    The consequence of a diet of high-methionine (animal) foods may be a life-threatening inflammatory bowel disease, called ulcerative colitis.37-38

5)  Sulfur restriction prolongs life.39  Almost seventy years ago, restricting food consumption was found to prolong the life of animals by changing the fundamental rate at which aging occurs.40  Restriction of methionine in the diet has also been shown to prolong the life of experimental animals.  By no coincidence, a diet based on plant foods is inherently low in both calories and methionine – thus the easiest and most effective means to a long and healthy life.

6)  Possibly a stronger motivation to keep protein, and especially methionine-rich animal protein, out of your diet is foul smelling odors – halitosis, body odor, and noxious flatus – akin to the smell of rotten eggs – are direct results of the sulfur (animal protein) you eat.41,42

Do Not Waste Your Health Away

Animal foods, full of protein waste, promote poor health and early death by accelerating the aging process and increasing the risk of diseases, like heart disease, diabetes, and cancer, that in their own right, cause premature death.  From now on, think of the excess protein you consume as garbage that must be disposed of in order to avoid toxic waste accumulation.  Obviously, the best action is to avoid the excess in the first place and this is most easily accomplished by choosing a diet based on starches, vegetables, and fruits.  Within a few days of changing to a healthy diet, most of the waste will be gone and the damaged tissues will begin healing. 

Unfortunately, you will find little support for such an obvious, inexpensive, and scientifically-supported approach – especially when the common masses of people worldwide are ignorant of the truth – most are gobbling down as much protein as they can stuff in their mouths – and the food industry is supporting this behavior by advertising their products as “high-protein” and "Atkins-approved" – as if this was somehow good for the body.  This paradox is age-old, and because it is ruled by emotions, rather than clear thinking, a change in mind-set in your lifetime, should not be expected.

Two thousand years ago, in this Bible passage, Paul asked for tolerance between meat eaters and vegetarians (Romans 14:1-2). “One man’s faith allows him to eat everything, but another man whose faith is weak, eats only vegetables.  The man who eats everything must not look down on him who does not, and the man who does not eat everything must not condemn the man who does...”  Do not wait for a consensus before you take action.

References:

1) Chittenden, R. H. (1905). Physiological economy in nutrition, with special reference to the minimal protein requirement of the healthy man. An experimental study. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Company.

2)  Fire Retardant Treated Plywood:  http://www.nexsenpruet.com/library/docs/NPCOL1_624753_1.pdf

3) Calloway DH.  Sweat and miscellaneous nitrogen losses in human balance studies.
J Nutr. 1971 Jun;101(6):775-86. 

4)  Hegsted DM..  Minimum protein requirements of adults.  Am J Clin Nutr. 1968 May; 21(5): 352-7. 

5) Dole V.  Dietary treatment of hypertension: clinical and metabolic studies of patients on the rice-fruit diet,  J Clin Invest, 1950; 29: 1189-1206.

6)  Millward DJ.  The nutritional value of plant-based diets in relation to human amino acid and protein requirements.  Proc Nutr Soc. 1999 May;58(2):249-60.

7)  Mazess RB.  Bone mineral content of North Alaskan Eskimos. Am J Clin Nutr. 1974 Sep; 27(9): 916-25.

8)  Brenner BM.  Dietary protein intake and the progressive nature of kidney disease: the role of hemodynamically mediated glomerular injury in the pathogenesis of progressive glomerular sclerosis in aging, renal ablation, and intrinsic renal disease. N Engl J Med. 1982 Sep 9; 307(11): 652-9.

9)  Meyer TW.  Dietary protein intake and progressive glomerular sclerosis: the role of capillary hypertension and hyperperfusion in the progression of renal disease.  Ann Intern Med. 1983 May; 98(5 Pt 2): 832-8.

10)  Hansen HP.  Effect of dietary protein restriction on prognosis in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Kidney Int. 2002 Jul; 62(1): 220-8.

11)  Biesenbach G.  Effect of mild dietary protein restriction on urinary protein excretion in patients with renal transplant fibrosis.  Wien Med Wochenschr. 1996; 146(4): 75-8.

12)  Pedrini MT.  The effect of dietary protein restriction on the progression of diabetic and nondiabetic renal diseases: a meta-analysis.  Ann Intern Med. 1996 Apr 1;124(7):627-32.

13)  Cupisti A. Vegetarian diet alternated with conventional low-protein diet for patients with chronic renal failure.  J Ren Nutr. 2002 Jan;12(1):32-7.

14)  Bianchi GP.  Vegetable versus animal protein diet in cirrhotic patients with chronic encephalopathy. A randomized cross-over comparison.  J Intern Med. 1993 May; 233(5): 385-92.

15) Abelow B.  Cross-cultural association between dietary animal protein and hip fracture: a hypothesis.  Calcific Tissue Int 50:14-8, 1992.

16) Frassetto LA .  Worldwide incidence of hip fracture in elderly women: relation to consumption of animal and vegetable foods. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2000 Oct;55(10):M585-92.

17) Maurer M.  Neutralization of Western diet inhibits bone resorption independently of K intake and reduces cortisol secretion in humans. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2003 Jan;284(1):F32-40.

18)  Remer T.  Influence of diet on acid-base balance.  Semin Dial. 2000 Jul-Aug;13(4):221-6.

19)  Frassetto L.   Diet, evolution and aging--the pathophysiologic effects of the post-agricultural inversion of the potassium-to-sodium and base-to-chloride ratios in the human diet.  Eur J Nutr. 2001 Oct;40(5):200-13.

20)  Remer T. Potential renal acid load of foods and its influence on urine pH.  J Am Diet Assoc. 1995 Jul;95(7):791-7.

21)  Barzel US.  Excess dietary protein can adversely affect bone.  J Nutr. 1998 Jun;128(6):1051-3.

22)  Maurer M.  Neutralization of Western diet inhibits bone resorption independently of K intake and reduces cortisol secretion in humans. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2003 Jan; 284(1): F32-40. Epub 2002 Sep 24.

23)  Remer T. Potential renal acid load of foods and its influence on urine pH.  J Am Diet Assoc. 1995 Jul;95(7):791-7.

24)  J Pennington.  Bowes & Church’s Food Values of Portions Commonly Used.  17th Ed. Lippincott. Philadelphia- New York. 1998.

25)  Massey LK .  Dietary animal and plant protein and human bone health: a whole foods approach.  J Nutr. 2003 Mar; 133(3): 862S-865S.

26) Jenkins DJ.  Effect of high vegetable protein diets on urinary calcium loss in middle-aged men and women.  Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003 Feb;57(2):376-82.

27)  Lemann J Jr.  Relationship between urinary calcium and net acid excretion as determined by dietary protein and potassium: a review. Nephron. 1999; 81 Suppl 1: 18-25.

28)  Delvecchio FC.  Medical management of stone disease. Curr Opin Urol. 2003 May; 13(3): 229-33.

29)  Remer T.  Influence of diet on acid-base balance.  Semin Dial. 2000 Jul-Aug; 13(4): 221-6.

30)  Troen AM.  The atherogenic effect of excess methionine intake. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Dec 9; 100(25): 15089-94.

31)  Cellarier E.  Methionine dependency and cancer treatment.  Cancer Treat Rev. 2003 Dec; 29(6): 489-99.

32)  Epner DE.  Nutrient intake and nutritional indexes in adults with metastatic cancer on a phase I clinical trial of dietary methionine restriction.  Nutr Cancer. 2002; 42(2): 158-66.

33)  Paulsen JE.  Growth stimulation of intestinal tumours in Apc(Min/+) mice by dietary L-methionine supplementation.  Anticancer Res. 2001 Sep-Oct; 21(5): 3281-4.

34)  Stubbs AK.  Nutrient-hormone interaction in the ovine liver: methionine supply selectively modulates growth hormone-induced IGF-I gene expression. J Endocrinol. 2002 Aug; 174(2): 335-41.

35)  Yu H. Role of the insulin-like growth factor family in cancer development and progression.  J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000 Sep 20;92(18):1472-89.

36)  Levine J.  Fecal hydrogen sulfide production in ulcerative colitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 1998 Jan;93(1):83-7.

37)  Roediger W.  Sulphide impairment of substrate oxidation in rat colonocytes: a biochemical basis for ulcerative colitis? Clin Sci (Lond). 1993 Nov;85(5):623-7.

38)  Christl S.  Effect of sodium sulfide on cell proliferation of colonic mucosa.  Gastroenterology 1994; 106:A664 (abstr).

39)  Zimmerman JA.  Nutritional control of aging.  Exp Gerontol. 2003 Jan-Feb; 38(1-2): 47-52.

40)  McCay C.  The effect of retarded growth upon length of lifespan and upon ultimate body size.  J Nutr. 1935; 10: 63-79.

41)  McDougall J.  Halitosis Is More than Bad Breath .  McDougall Newsletter. January 2002 at www.drmcdougall.com.

42)  McDougall J.  Bad Farts? Meat Stinks!  McDougall Newsletter. August 2002 at www.drmcdougall.com.


 
   
 
 

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SV: Sticky: Nyreskader av proteinpulver?
« #68 : 29. april 2006, 20:41 »
Og videre..

Ser ut som det kan være smart å være litt forsiktig med tilskuddene likevel, selv om det ikke er konsensus på dette feltet.
Det er ihvertfall viktig synes jeg å få vite om potensielle farer med høyt protein inntak.

How Much Protein Do You Need?

Robert M. Russell, M.D., and Carmen Castanada Sceppa, M.D., Ph.D.

Carmen Castanada Sceppa, M.D, Ph.D., is a scientist working at the Jean Mayer USDA/Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University School of Medicine. Carmen's research emphasizes protein nutrition and physiological function of healthy older individuals and those with chronic illnesses.

RMR
How does the average intake in the United States measure up against the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for protein?

CCS
The typical American diet provides plenty of protein -- more than the RDA in most instances. The RDA represents the minimum amount of protein needed to fulfill protein needs in 97.5% of the population. This value is equal to 0.8 g of protein per kg body weight per day. The average mixed American diet provides from one to two times the RDA for protein. You might think, then, based on this that protein deficiency is unlikely in the U.S. . However, the RDA for protein has been derived from research studies performed on healthy individuals. Growing children, pregnant and lactating women, the elderly, and anyone undergoing severe stress (trauma, hospitalization, surgery), disease or disability need more protein.

RMR
What if you exercise?

CCS
We have seen in our lab that individuals undergoing endurance training increase their protein needs to about 1 to 1.2 g per kg per day, well above the RDA. In contrast, for subjects performing resistance exercises or weight lifting, the RDA for protein seems to be adequate. In resistance training, you are building up muscle and protein is used more efficiently.

Muscles are built from protein. Unlike fat cells for fat and muscle or liver for glucose, there is no place in the body to store protein. We need to consume enough protein to allow our muscles to be healthy and perform work.

RMR
Carmen, we hear a lot in the media about balancing different types of proteins. What are the best sources of protein and what exactly is meant by complementary proteins?

CCS
Animal and plant or vegetable foods are the two major protein sources. Animal protein foods include meat, poultry, fish, dairy products and eggs and are said to be of high biological value. That is, they contain all nine essential amino acids that can not be synthesized in the body (histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine).

Plant protein sources, although good for certain essential amino acids, do not always offer all nine essential amino acids in a single given food. For example, legumes lack methionine, while grains lack lysine. What is needed are complementary proteins, various protein food sources that, eaten together, enable a person to meet the standards of a high biologic protein diet.

RMR
Do vegetarians and people on macrobiotic diets get into problems with protein malnutrition?

CCS
There are two types of vegetarians. Lacto-ovo vegetarians and strict vegetarians or "vegans". Lacto vegetarians eat animal protein of high biological value, eggs and dairy products. Vegans, however, eat a more limited diet and often must take amino acids supplements to make up for their not-so-high biological protein diet. If vegans eat a variety of plant foods -- cereals, nuts, seeds, grains and legumes -- they'll be fine. They don't have to eat all these food items at a given meal. However, they should consume most or all of them during the course of the day to insure a well balanced protein diet of high biological value.

RMR
Can one take in too much protein?

CCS
The typical American diet, as we said earlier, is already providing plenty of protein. There is no value in adding even more protein to that amount, since protein cannot be stored in the body and the excess is eliminated in urine and feces.

When people start consuming too much protein (over 2.0 g/kg/d), the extra protein can become a stressful stimulus for the kidney. This is even more of a concern as we get older and our organs are less efficient and effective.

Very high levels of dietary protein have also been correlated with increased urinary calcium excretion. The loss of calcium through urine could potentially be harmful for bone turnover, with the added risk of osteoporosis. Finally, protein requires vitamin B6 in order to be metabolized and ultimately utilized in the body. Very high levels of dietary protein increase the requirement for this B vitamin.

RMR
Do you recommend that an athlete consuming a high amount of protein should take in additional calcium and vitamin B6?

CCS
As we said before, athletes performing weight bearing type of exercises don't need extra protein and, therefore, won't need to take calcium or B vitamin supplements, provided that they eat a well balanced diet. Indeed, weight-bearing exercise, in itself, helps prevent bone loss.

Endurance training, on the other hand, demands extra dietary protein but, fortunately, vitamin B6 is also present in protein-rich foods. If an athlete is trying to lose weight or to maintain very light weights, and, thus, is already consuming lower amounts of these nutrients, then I'd recommend additional calcium and vitamin B6.

RMR
We often put patients with severe liver disease and brain disease on protein-restricted diets. For these individuals, are there any types of protein that are better tolerated?

CCS
Liver disease certainly poses a problem as far as how protein and amino acids are handled in the body. The liver is the main organ for breaking down amino acids, so when it is impaired, amino acids levels can build up and become toxic. This is particularly worrisome in the case of the so-called aromatic amino acids, such as tryptophan and phenylalanine, which are processed by the liver.

But there are other amino acids, the so-called branched chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine and valine), which are not metabolized in the liver and go directly into the tissues (brain, skeletal muscle and kidney). Another amino acid, glutamine, is broken down in the gut and the kidneys and, therefore, for a patient with liver disease, does not tend to become toxic. Foods (e.g., legumes) rich in these amino acids help these patients maintain their protein nutrition.

RMR
In health food stores and drug stores, there are many protein supplements. Should people take them?

CCS
Amino acid supplements are widely used by athletes who believe that having more of these basic building blocks available enables skeletal muscle to get stronger and have better endurance without the added calories. Amino acid supplements are not digested and absorbed in the body as readily as amino acids coming from food sources. Moreover, amino acid supplements tend to cause an imbalance of the amino acids already present in the body. Most of these supplements contain aromatic-type amino acids, such as tryptophan, which are constituents of the brain's neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters will not act properly if the fine balance among all of the various types of amino acids is disturbed by too much supplementation. There are other conditions, one characterized by fever, skin rash, muscle and joint pains and edema of the legs, known as eosinophilia-myalgia, that may result from excess amino acid supplements. People taking amino acid products, who frequently go to health food stores and self-prescribe them, should be aware of these potential problems.

October, 1999  Email this article to a friend

References
1. Proteins and Amino Acids, 1989, In: Recommended Dietary Allowances. National Research Council, 10th. ed., National Academy Press, Washington 52-77.

2. WHO/FAO/UNU. Energy and Protein Metabolism. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1985.

3. Munro, H., 1989, Protein Nutriture and Requirements of the Elderly. In: Human Nutrition a Comprehensive Treatise. Nutrition, Aging, and the Elderly, H. Munro and D. Danford, eds., Volume 6, Plenum Press, New York, 153-181.

4. Crim MC, Munro H. Proteins and amino acids. In: Shils, Olson, and Shike, eds., Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. Lea and Febiger, 1994:1-30.

 
   

 
 

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SV: Sticky: Nyreskader av proteinpulver?
« #69 : 16. mai 2006, 11:10 »
Her har vi enda en av de "vet bedre enn deg" doktor: 
http://www.all-creatures.org/mfz/health-proteinoverload.html

Har en følelse at de gjør det for pengene  No no

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I det stangen treffer gulvet brøler han triumferende. Den metroseksuelle mannen kan spise så mye sushi han bare orker. Det er jern som får testosteronet til å bruse. Det er her, i denne gymmen, man bygger menn. - KK Ingvild

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Sv: Sticky: Nyreskader av proteinpulver?
« #70 : 14. april 2007, 12:00 »

http://www.forskning.no/Artikler/2006/oktober/1162298767.71

Pass på proteinene

10.nov 2006 05:00
Av: Lars Holger Ursin, Journalist, UiB

 
 – Før var vi opptatt av mengden fett vi fikk i oss, siden ble det klart at forskjellige typer fett hadde ulik betydning for helsen. Nå skjer det samme med proteinene, forklarer Oddrun Anita Gudbrandsen.
- Mange dietter har anbefalt en viss mengde proteiner i kosten, men det ser ut til å være minst like viktig hvilken type proteiner du spiser, sier Gudbrandsen.

Denne uken avla hun doktorgraden ved Universitetet i Bergen, etter å ha forsket på fett og proteiner i kostholdet under veiledning av professor Rolf Berge.

– Etter hvert har flere og flere sett på betydningen av proteiner i kosten, sier hun.

Populære diettprogrammer som Dr. Fedon Lindbergs, Atkins eller South Beach-dietten legger alle vekt på at man skal spise en bestemt mengde proteiner for å bli slank, sunn og frisk.

– Men nøyaktig hvilke proteiner, sier de ikke alltid så mye om, sier Gudbrandsen.

Hun mener nettopp hvilke proteiner du spiser kan være helt avgjørende.

I begynnelsen var det fett

– Opprinnelig begynte jeg å se på effektene av TTA, sier Gudbrandsen.

Den modifiserte fettsyren TTA har tidligere vist seg å ha god effekt på triglyseridnivået i blodet, insulinresistens og hyperglykemi. Alt dette er symptomer på metabolsk syndrom, en tilstand som rammer stadig flere i Norge.

 
Oddrun Anita Gudbransen har vist at det ikke bare er forskjeller mellom typer av fett, men at også forskjellige typer proteiner kan ha helt ulike effekter på helsen. – Vi visste imidlertid ikke om TTA også hadde effekt på hypertensjon, altså høyt blodtrykk, forteller Gudbrandsen.

Det var det første hun gjorde til sin doktorgrad.

Gjennom å stanse deler av blodtilførselen til nyrene hos forsøksdyr, fremkalte hun i samarbeid med professor Bjarne Iversen en tilstand som kalles renal hypertensjon. For å øke blodtilførselen til nyrene, produserer de et stoff som øker blodtrykket systemisk.

Da rottene fikk TTA i kosten, sank blodtrykket nesten umiddelbart. Selv da TTA ble tilført etter flere uker med høyt blodtrykk, sank blodtrykket etter hvert til det samme nivået.

Medikament

Gudbrandsen ga også medikamentet Tamoxifen til en gruppe forsøksdyr. Tamoxifen brukes til å behandle brystkreft, men har fettlever som relativt vanlig bivirkning.

Fettlever er en unormal opphopning av fett i levercellene , som sees vanligvis hos tunge alkoholmisbrukere eller hos overvektige.

Dyrene som fikk Tamoxifen fikk en over 50 prosent økning av triglyserider i leveren. Men da dyrene fikk TTA i tillegg til tamoxifen, ble triglyseridnivået normalt igjen.

Ligger nøkkelen i proteinet?

Så langt var alt vel, men Gudbrandsen og enkelte av kollegene hennes har hatt mistanke til at det ikke bare er enkelte typer av fett som kan gi en gunstig helseeffekt.

 
Foto: Frank Gregersen, Fiskeriforskning En av grunnene til dette stammer fra forskning på fiskefett. Dersom en person spiser en bestemt mengde fiskefett gjennom å spise ren fisk, og en annen inntar den samme mengden fiskefett i for eksempel kapsler, ser det ut til at de som spiser fisk får den beste effekten.

Kunne det hende at det var noe med proteinet i fisken som forsterket effekten av det gode fettet?

Oppsiktsvekkende

Etter å ha variert typen proteiner i kosten tillegg, skjedde det noe oppsiktsvekkende. Hos dyrene som fikk det modifiserte isoflavon-rike soyaproteinet HDI, ble det langt lavere fettopphopning i leveren.

Hos dem som hadde spist melkeproteinet kasein, var situasjonen helt omvendt: Der var det nesten ikke levervev å se for bare fett.

Kasein kan altså være en medvirkende årsak til fettlever. Det finnes naturlig i meieriprodukter, er ofte en komponent i proteintilskudd som er populære blant kroppsbyggere, og tilsettes av og til kunstige osteerstatninger, for å bedre konsistensen.

I tillegg fremheves det i Atkins-dietten som et av de gunstigste proteinene.

Fisk og soya fungerer også

Litt ekstra spesielt var det at det viste seg at dyrene som hadde spist HDI faktisk produserte mer fett enn kontrollgruppen – selv om leveren deres altså inneholdt mindre fett.

– Dette tror vi henger sammen med at HDI i maten fører til at leveren tar opp igjen mindre fett fra blodet, i tillegg til at fettforbrenningen øker – og at det skjer i så stor grad at den må kompensere ved å syntetisere mer, forklarer Gudbrandsen.

En annen effekt av det sunne proteinet, er at det senker blodverdiene av kolesterol. Det «farlige» LDL-kolesterolet var knapt å finne i blodprøver fra dyrene som hadde spist HDI – men HDI ser også ut til å senke total-kolesterolet i blodet.

De beste nyhetene i Gudbrandsens doktoravhandling, er imidlertid kanskje at de som lider av metabolsk syndrom ikke trenger å lete etter mat som inneholder HDI for å få tak i de sunne proteinene.

– Vanlig soyaprotein og fiskeprotein fungerer også, forsikrer Gudbrandsen.


Er Kasein protein ugunstig å bruke over tid Huh Bruker selv Prozyme, kanskje man bør variere med soyaprotein, 2-3 mnd intervaller?
 

 
 
   
 

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Sv: Sticky: Nyreskader av proteinpulver?
« #71 : 29. september 2007, 18:28 »


"O holy thread, I summon you!"
I det stangen treffer gulvet brøler han triumferende. Den metroseksuelle mannen kan spise så mye sushi han bare orker. Det er jern som får testosteronet til å bruse. Det er her, i denne gymmen, man bygger menn. - KK Ingvild

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Sv: Sticky: Nyreskader av proteinpulver?
« #72 : 20. desember 2007, 16:41 »
Registrerte i vg på søndag, at det ble konkludert med at proteintilskudd ikke var nødvendig for de aller fleste folk, og at det også kunne være skadelig osv.. fremdeles bare tull?

Jepp, det er fremdeles bare tull. Et høyt proteininntak er ikke påvist skadelig for friske mennesker.


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Sv: Sticky: Nyreskader av proteinpulver?
« #73 : 02. februar 2008, 18:01 »
Kjenner jeg misliker at spørsmål som dette ikke har ja\nei svar.

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Sv: Sticky: Nyreskader av proteinpulver?
« #74 : 02. februar 2008, 18:21 »
Personlig erfaring: Dårlig kvalitets protein kan skape problemer. Bådde jeg og en kamerat brukte lav-kvalitetes protein (vi er og var friske) men fikk langvarige mage problemer.
Men om nyrene er ødelagt tviler jeg på men det skjedde hvertfall noe som ikke var bra

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